Rogers The Journal of Military History: A tactical revolution based on the use of linear formations of drilled musketeers had led to a massive increase in the size of armies, which in turn had dramatically heightened the impact of war on society. The new armies of Maurice of Nassau and Gustavus Adolphus, larger and more disciplined than any seen before, had made it possible to execute more complex strategic plans.
Brought to the Old World by Christopher Columbus, tobacco and tobacco products soon spread worldwide. The manufactured cigarette has been the dominant form of tobacco use in the United States for only a century Figure 2.
Duke and his American Tobacco Company Chandler This chapter addresses why this rise and fall of cigarette smoking occurred, giving emphasis to the half-century since the report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General, Smoking and Health, and to the impact of the reports of the Surgeon General on tobacco use in the United States.
Adapted from Warner with permission from Massachusetts more Two major sections follow: Lengthy and detailed historical accounts are available elsewhere Kluger ; Brandt ; Proctor Americans' behaviors, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs toward the cigarette have changed dramatically since when the first report of the Surgeon General on smoking and health was released.
The smoking habit crossed socioeconomic, gender, race, and ethnicity boundaries. Cigarette smoking was widely accepted, highly prevalent, and not discouraged in homes, and it took place in public spaces of all kinds, including hospitals, restaurants, airplanes, and medical conferences Brandt Today, the prevalence of smoking among U.
The majority of households are smoke-free and smoking is banned on airplanes worldwide U.
Moreover, the rise and fall of smoking-caused diseases and premature deaths during the twentieth century generally follow patterns of changing tobacco-use behavior, albeit several decades later. Although there had been previous statements on the harms of using tobacco, the report was significant for providing the most thorough and comprehensive review up to that time.
However, translating this knowledge into action to benefit public health was not a simple or direct process. At the time of release of the report, the tobacco industry had a powerful influence and attempted to minimize the impact of the report using a broad set of strategies Kluger ; Brandt ; Proctor That influence has now greatly declined, diminished by many factors, including trends in American culture, politics, economics, health care, and social life.
This chapter addresses how the evolving scientific evidence on tobacco has been a key driver of the changes that have led to a dramatic shift in social norms around cigarette smoking.
These changes have been driven by many factors, including patterns of tobacco use across the twentieth century to the present. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases CVD dropped sharply and progressively, and rates for a number of cancers peaked and began to decline, most notably in men.
By contrast, mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease steadily climbed. Changes in the prevalence of tobacco smoking contributed to these shifts, but patterns of other risk factors also changed over the last 50 years, as programs addressed hypertension and other risk factors for CVD, and medications became available that reduced CVD, such as statins Feinlieb et al.
Before the Report To understand the transformative consequences of the report for tobacco control, this chapter begins with a description of the developments in tobacco control before Cigarette smoking grew rapidly in early twentieth century America with the arrival of technology for mass production and the development of a consumer culture and effective advertising and promotion on an unprecedented national scale Figure 2.
At the same time, there was strong opposition to this trend from some groups, but early condemnations were often based on concerns about adverse moral and social impact rather than specific health effects Best Additionally, concerns focused on specific groups seen to be especially vulnerable to the social and psychological effects of chronic cigarette smoking, notably youth and women.
And unrestricted tobacco advertising, often with health-related claims, was seen as taking unfair advantage of those who were most vulnerable.
In the first two decades of the century, an organized antitobacco effort developed, composed of temperance advocates, religious leaders, and health reformers Kluger They were alarmed by the increase in cigarette smoking among youth and believed it to be associated with the abuse of alcohol and narcotic drugs.
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During this period, a total of 15 states banned the sale, manufacture, possession, or use of cigarettes. Many other states considered such legislation, and municipalities imposed additional restrictions on advertising, smoking near school buildings, and women smoking in public Tate Warnings about tobacco were offered by the Surgeon General before InSurgeon General Hugh S.
Cumming warned about the hazards of tobacco claiming that excessive smoking caused nervousness, insomnia, and other ill effects in young women Burnham Like many physicians at the time, he believed that women were more susceptible than men to certain injuries, especially of the nervous system.
But Cumming, a smoker, distanced himself from the more extreme antitobacco and temperance reformers of the time Parascandola Although physicians generally did not see a significant health threat for most smokers, there was growing concern over cigarette advertising during the s and s that made a wide array of unfounded health claims.
In the highly competitive branded cigarette market, prominent advertising campaigns included explicit health claims: FTC brought legal action against each of the major cigarette companies during the s in an effort to curb health claims in advertising, resulting in a series of cease-and-desist orders.
By the s, however, American scholars and activists had become aware of increasing cancer death rates. Statisticians in the insurance industry, such as Frederick L.The 50 Most Important Women in Science; Three years ago, Discover started a project to look into the question of how women fare in science.
We knew there were large numbers of female researchers doing remarkable work, and we asked associate editor Kathy A.
Svitil to talk to them. Until last June, the biochemist held the American single. Jul 14, · Exactly years ago, our conception of the Universe was far different from what it is today. The stars within the Milky Way were known, and were known to be at distances up to thousands of light years away, but nothing was thought to be further.
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, 50, & Years Ago: The Greatest Inventions, up to One .
Major events in the last years Timeline created by jacjac. In History. Apr 15, The hijackers intentionally steered two planes in to the twin towers and one into the pentagon.
There was also another plane headed towards the White House but I was wrecked into a field. Historia de la Psicología Social.
Within 5 years, more than states had signed the treaty and states had ratified it, making it one of the most quickly accepted treaties in UN history. To date, the United States has not become a party to the FCTC nor have Indonesia and Argentina. The Science of the Next Years. Scientific American asked leading scientists and and years hence?
of science and technology for more than years. To mention just one example.