The reform era

Country life movement As late ashalf the population lived in rural areas. They experienced their own progressive reforms, typically with the explicit goal of upgrading country life. The railroad system was virtually complete; the need was for much better roads.

The reform era

Facebook Reform Era, The period between and represents a watershed in the history of government and politics in Newfoundland. Between the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the grant of representative government inthe island experienced the end of naval government and the birth of what we now recognize as modern Newfoundland.

The reform era

Fueling this remarkable growth were the massive social and economic changes which the island underwent during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. From to the Newfoundland fishery transformed into a resident operation; massive immigration boosted the population dramatically; and new political institutions emerged.

Organizations such as the Society of Merchants and the Benevolent Irish Society became established and, equally important, in the island's first newspaper, the Royal Gazette, began publication.

Growth of Political Reform Nourished by these developments, a political reform movement arose in the early 19th century.

Led principally by William Carson and Patrick Morris, this movement revolutionised the nature of politics in St. John's and eventually the entire island. After emigrating from Scotland inCarson quickly embarked on a influential career as a writer, reformer, and politician.

The reform era

He published the first political protest pamphlets in St. John's, in which he attacked the government for abusing individual liberties and demanded that an elected assembly be established in Newfoundland.

William Carson An early 19th century Newfoundland reformer and politician. They formed a committee, sent a petition to London, and had their case presented before the House of Commons. Throughout the reformers held a series of public meetings to garner support for their cause.

Criticism of Naval Government A central theme in this period is how law and politics became intertwined. Reformers such as Carson and Morris viewed Newfoundland's legal system as largely to blame for the island's economic problems after The archaic system of naval government had, it was repeatedly alleged, retarded Newfoundland's development.

In particular, the reform movement targeted the system of surrogate courts and the apparent mis-rule of the naval governors. Patrick Morris argued that the island fully deserved institutions consistent with the needs of a civilized society: In effect, for the first time, Newfoundland had a type of opposition party.

Drive for Religous Liberty Added to the growing political discourse were two important themes: Although the first of these stayed largely in the political background untilthe desire for religious liberties formed a vital ingredient of the early reform movement.

Until the mids the reformers were mostly Irish Roman Catholics who remained outside the traditional circles of power. Like their ounterparts in Ireland and Britain, they wanted the British government to repeal the laws restricting Roman Catholicism.

Attack on the Power of Merchants With regard to the attacks on merchants, the reformers focused on the power of those who monopolized the island's resources yet lived elsewhere. Patrick Morris used the emotional imagery of slavery to depict how the island's people had suffered under the rule of monopolist merchants.

Social and economic ills were inexorably linked to the pressing need for a popularly elected legislature. In the reform movement won a partial victory. The British government passed the Judicature Act which, among other things, abolished the surrogate courts and provided for a town corporation to make bye-laws.

A charter issued in finally granted Newfoundland official colonial status, with a civil governor and a council. The colony's new governor, Sir Thomas Cochrane, held private meetings with merchants and prominent reformers in order to discuss proposals for the creation of a local government in St.

Sir Thomas Cochrane ca. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons Merchants Fight Back However, the process abruptly ground to a halt in when a bloc of leading merchants opposed the plans for reform. John's had, in fact, never backed the early reform movement, and now a conservative faction publicly objected to the establishment of a town council.

This split between conservative and reformist parties prevented further political changes; in representative government still remained a rather distant goal.

New Taxation In two factors transformed the reform movement in Newfoundland. First, the British government announced the imposition of new duties on imports into the colony.


Such a move contravened the traditional exemption of the fishery from taxation and would cut directly into the operations of the St. It also united the fractious merchant interests against the proposed tax.The China Reader: The Reform Era [Orville Schell, David Shambaugh] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

Current Affairs/Asian Studies Perhaps no nation in recent history has undergone as total a transformation as China has in the past twenty-five years.

For Chinese leaders. Towards Dress Reform. Social and Fashion History Changes in Clothing and Dress s Costume History. The reform movements that arose during the antebellum period in America focused on specific issues: temperance, abolishing imprisonment for debt, pacifism, antislavery, abolishing capital punishment, amelioration of prison conditions (with prison's purpose reconceived as rehabilitation rather than.

In the pre-reform era, government was funded by profits from state-owned enterprises, much like the Soviet Union. As the state sector fell in importance and profitability, government revenues, especially that of the central government in Beijing, fell substantially and the .

The Post-Suharto era in Indonesia began with the fall of Suharto in during which Indonesia has been in a period of transition, an era known in Indonesia as Reformasi (English: Reform).A more open and liberal political-social environment ensued following the resignation of authoritarian President Suharto, ending the three decades of the .

Absolutism and Constitutionalism - Multiple Choice. More Multiple Choice on Absolutism and Constitutionalism. Flashcards on Absolutism and Constitutionalism.

Historical Eras