Reiner 4 Neuroethics 65 Neuroscience has substantially advanced the understanding of how changes in brain biochemistry contribute to mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence via exposure to addictive drugs. Promoting a brain disease concept is grounded in beneficent and utilitarian thinking: However such claims may yield unintended consequences by fostering discrimination commonly associated with pathology. Specifically, the language of neuroscience used to describe addiction may reduce attitudes such as blame and responsibility while inadvertently identifying addicted persons as neurobiological others.
Juvenile Justice System Research Paper Posted on by admin Juvenile delinquency is a serious threat to the current and future safety of American society. Although the results of criminal offences are the same, some would argue that the problem is much more complicated and demands more consideration that adult criminals.
That is, the nature and circumstances of juvenile delinquency raise into discussion several main inherent moral and ethical dilemmas: First, since children and adolescences are much more responsive to environmental pressure, one should carefully consider the motives of a young criminal.
For example, a child who cannot afford a status symbol e. The same holds true for other types of criminal offence such as drug abuse and violence. Second, minors are typically less experienced; therefore, their perception about good and bad differ from adults, and they are much more sensitive to manipulations.
It is thus a sound assumption that many of the young prisoners are growing up into a life of crime. All those factors and others imply that the juvenile justice system should be coherently different from the adult criminal justice system. The rationale for behind giving special handling with young offenders is the idea of parens patriae the state as parent.
This doctrine suggests that it is the responsibility of the state to protect and nurture children when their parents fail to do so. Therefore, when a minor commits a crime, he should receive a treatment rather than a punishment, and the legislator must make sure that the justice system considers the well—being of the specific offender more deeply than the seriousness of the offence.
The first juvenile court was established in Chicago in Until then, minors above seven years of age were brought to trial in a regular criminal court, although many countries have already operated designated prisons for juvenile offenders.
Throughout the following 50 years, the courts have evolved to a significantly different form from the rest of the system. Most importantly was the multidimensional approach towards the child, tailoring rehabilitation programs which best fit his specific situation.
In some cases, however, young offenders were tried in criminal courts, as some still happens today. However, this approach did not prove itself as an effective solution for the rising crime rates among youth.
As a result, the contemporary juvenile justice system is similar in many ways to criminal courts. Further changes in legislation defined a strict line towards young offenders. This approach involved, among others, reduced confidentiality for trial hearings which characterized the traditional juvenile justice system and contextual-based referral for criminal courts and adult correctional sanctioning in sharp contrast to the Act.
That is, age alone is no longer the only parameter for the type of court and the subsequent procedures and punishment methods. These changes and others, which took place during the s, have positively affected the number of crimes committed by youth and reduced the number of juvenile murderers.
Nonetheless, despite the positive results of the punitive policies during the last decade, other findings may imply that this line may worsen the situation in the long run. Most of the criticism refers to the tendency to handle juvenile cases in the adult criminal justice and lockup systems, which may lead to increased criminal activities rather than reducing it.
Nevertheless, we should rethink and adjust the policies in reference to empirical evidence, in order to achieve the highest effectiveness of preventing juvenile offenders to lifetime criminals. The Legacy of Punitive Policy. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6, pp. Youth under age 18 in the adult criminal justice system.
National Council on Crime and Delinquency. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32 4Spp.
Retrieved June 16, from http:The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience. The Failures of California Juvenile Justice System Essay Sample. Introduction. This study is aimed at getting into the underlying reasons that have brought about inefficiency in the juvenile justice system of the state of California.
The Juvenile Justice System is defined as that "sociolegal process having responsibility and authority for public reaction to current juvenile delinquency and deterrence of future juvenile delinquency, including within that process the public and private agents, agencies, laws, rules, and policies having to do with juvenile delinquency"(Weiner.
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“Not a week goes by without a headline in a newspaper in the U.S. citing abuse of a young person in one of these facilities in the juvenile justice system,” Ryan continues in her written.
The major issue I intend to look at it is whether or not we should abolish the juvenile justice system. First, we will look at the position of keeping Fair Use Policy; Help Centre This essay has been submitted by a student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. In light of these failures, Feld.