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This review identifies the evidence regarding the fasting guidelines for adults being monitored for anesthesia, fasting periods and ensuring compliance to the guidelines among other factors revolving around fasting among patients undergoing anesthesia. Rural areas lack of protocols what are EBP.
They are not complaint with ASA guidelines. Older adults are more vulnerable due to physiological changes, as well as inability to compensate when adverse events occur. This is why McDonald argues that there is a necessity to ensure that old people undergoing monitored care anesthesia in rural area settings are supposed to follow the necessary fasting guidelines to ensure eliminate any form of complications.
Consumption of Clear Liquids Prior to Anesthesia An increased body of literature shows that the oral intake of clear fluids for close to 2 hours prior to an elective operation prevents the prevailing risks. They opine that shortened preoperative fasting is not only safe, but decreases in insulin resistance as well as the acute phase response following a trauma.
Furthermore, the study indicates that the uptake of CHO-rich beverages possess the potential to curtail the post-operative discomfort and decrease the duration of the post operative stay.
However, further studies are necessary for the confirmation of these claims. Similar effect of carbohydrates on insulin were got from another study by Bilku, et al, that was characterized by 17 randomized controlled trials and a total of 1, patients.
They were found to significantly enhance the resistance of insulin and improve the patient safety. However, this study did not make any definite conclusion on the preservation of the muscle mass. CHO has also been found to have the potential to reduce preoperative discomfort and enhances satisfaction for the patients undergoing the anesthesia care.
Preoperative administration of clear fluids orally has recently been identified as one of the most efficient ways of improving the postoperative outcomes. According to the findings of the study by Nakamura, et al. Preoperative complications and the health of the adult patients characterized by the various conditions such as nausea, thirst and hunger were analyzed for a certain paper involving 38 randomized studies.
The fluids that were evaluated in the study include fruit juice, coffee, water as well as the other clear fluids characterized by carbohydrates or isotonic drinks.
Participants that were given water exhibited lower volume of gastric contents compared to the ones with the normal fasting regimen. Studies that focused on children found out that eating and drinking without limitation can be allowed up to 2 hours prior to surgery Power, et al.
An increase in the pH was also observed when the participants were exposed to preoperative fasting. One explanation for the increase in the pH of the gastric compartments related to the fact that anxiety related to the anticipation of food among children leads to an increase in the release of hydrochloric acid same case like that of the cephalic phase of the gastric secretion.
The study further found out that the cases of aspiration and regurgitation were minimal in the conditions of these studies. Therefore, as per the results of this study, children that are allowed to ingest liquids were less hungry and thirsty and also felt more comfortable and better behaved compared to the ones that were exposed placed under fasting conditions.
Aspiration related to anesthesia was not identified among the randomized and prospective studies conducted among participants that ate high carbohydrate drink. In their study characterized by a sample of patients undergoing anesthesia and provided with a solution of ml of Fasting Practices Fasting prior to anesthesia is important in avoiding the risk of pulmonary aspiration.
The suggestions to fast before an operation is associated with the assumption that food which is consumed just before an operation remains in the gastric system, thus increasing the risk related to aspiration. Additionally, there is also an assumption that abstaining from food before a surgery is likely to reduce the chances of aspiration.The literature review was (appx) 30% of each thesis.
My suggestion is to check the OATD website, find theses in your field and closely related to your topic to get a pretty general idea of the length and breadth of literature review. Database of master's theses written by CSU, Chico students, from on.
Many of these will contain published examples of literature reviews.
Containes over 2 million dissertations and theses with abstracts, 24 page free previews, and full-text PDF, if available, for dissertations and theses dating.
writing a literature review for a doctoral dissertation. It is essential that a master’s student include a thoughtful, thorough, and critical literature review in his or her thesis. Try to build the literature review around your key topic or thesis: be relentless – show how each piece of literature contributes to, or challenges, your central theme.
The literature review cites previous authors and what they say about the research question. It is arguably the most important chapter in a thesis proposal. The third chapter, methodology, is a discussion of the plan to be used in research. Sample Thesis/Dissertation Approval (TDA) Form Master’s Students.
Number of signatures required for. master’s students = student’s adviser (at least one signature in the.