An introduction to the issue of racial injustice in the united states legal system

How do we hold ourselves out to be the standard of justice and freedom in that statistical quagmire? How did we get to this point — and how do we get to a better place?

An introduction to the issue of racial injustice in the united states legal system

There were 2, black male prisoners with sentences over one year perblack male residents in the United States, and a total ofblack male sentenced prisoners in the United States as of December 31, This compares to 1, Hispanic male prisoners perHispanic male residents, and white male prisoners perwhite male residents in the United States at that time.

Black males between the ages of 18 and 19 had a rate of imprisonment Latinos 1 in 6 chance and whites, a 1 in This study was composed of eligible subjects, who were given the option to sentence a verdict based on their comprehension from the given instructions and their evidence.

The study concluded that multiple verdicts who could not comprehend the penalty instructions, had a higher death sentence probability. Race and capital punishment in the United States Various scholars have addressed what they perceived as the systemic racial bias present in the administration of capital punishment in the United States.

The federal death penalty data released by the United States Department of Justice between — shows that defendants were sentenced to death.

These are the differential offending or differential involvement hypothesis, which proposes that this overrepresentation is a result of African Americans committing more of the crimes that result in criminal justice processing, and the differential selection hypothesis, which proposes that this disproportionality is a result of discrimination by the criminal justice system.

Alfred Blumstein states, "Although blacks comprise roughly one-eighth of the population, they represent about one-half of the prison population.

Educational Injustice in the United States

Thus, the race-specific incarceration rates are grossly disproportionate. This injustice is alluded to further, but not directly linked to racial injustice, because black males are the victims of having an incarceration rate twenty five times higher than that of the total population. Studies done from to based on administrative data, surveys, and census data showed that 3 percent of whites and 20 percent of blacks served time in prison by their early thirties.

Thirty years later inrisk of incarceration was partially dependent on education with 30 percent of college dropouts and roughly 60 percent of high school dropouts going to prison. Education playing a role in either increasing or decreasing the likelihood of incarceration based upon the education and skill a person possesses.

These numbers represent a clear racial disparity in sentencing, particularly so, given the fact that during this period New Jersey was only Black teens are commonly over-estimated in age by an average of 4.

This tendency to round black teens up to adults is detailed in a study by the American Psychological Association entitled: Consequences of Dehumanizing Black Children". The belief that a third of all federal prisoners are illegal immigrants is inaccurate, as government authorities do not categorize all inmates by immigration status.

An early study by Joan Petersilia found that in California, Michigan, and Texas, Hispanics and blacks tended to receive harsher sentences than whites convicted of comparable crimes and with similar criminal records.

However, when the researchers examined base offenses instead, the disparity was reversed. Sentencing Commission data found that blacks received the longest sentences of any ethnicity within each gender group specifically, their sentence lengths were on average 91 months for men and 36 months for women.

However, the same study found a larger disparity in sentence length among medium- and dark-skinned blacks, who received 4. The study looked at 1, police shootings between and in 10 major police departments, in Texas, Florida and California. The study found that black and white suspects were equally likely to be armed and officers were more likely to fire their weapons before being attacked when the suspects were white.

For shootings in Houstonthe study looked at incidents in which an officer does not fire but might be expected to.

They concluded that officers were about 20 percent less likely to shoot black suspects. They found that there was no racial bias in the likelihood of being killed or injured after being stopped.

A database collected by The Guardian concluded that people in were killed by the police. The rate of fatal police shootings per million was The database showed by total, Whites were killed by police more than any other race or ethnicity. A study found that people of different races are treated differently by police officers throughout the time of their interaction.

The outcomes of the study showed that Black and Latino suspects have more force applied to them early on in the police to citizen interaction, while White citizens receive more violent force as the interaction progresses.

The same simulation used with police shows the target race affects the police reaction in some ways but they do not generally show a biased pattern of shooting. The study concluded that unarmed white suspects were three times more likely to be shot than unarmed black suspects.

The study found that "the participants were experiencing a greater threat response when faced with African Americans instead of white or Hispanic suspects" but were still "significantly slower to shoot armed black suspects than armed white suspects, and significantly less likely to mistakenly shoot unarmed black suspects than unarmed white suspects.

A analysis of reports from major metropolitan departments found officers fired more shots at white suspects than at black suspects, possibly because of "public sentiment concerning treatment of blacks. Failure to achieve literacy reading at " grade level " by the third or fourth grade makes the likelihood of future incarceration twenty times more likely than other students.

Some states use this measurement to predict how much prison space they will require in the future.Introduction.

Throughout the history of the United States, race has been an important issue in all aspects of the society. Although there has been significant reduction in the level of racial discrimination, it is still a defining topic in the American society.

An introduction to the issue of racial injustice in the united states legal system

- Introduction The issue of racial disparity in the criminal justice system has been a longstanding debate in this county. According to Tonry (as cited in Cole & Gertz, ) African Americans make up to 50% of the prison population but are only 12 % of the total United States population.

Racial Injustice; Is America ignoring the truth? There has always been a huge disparity in our legal system as it relates to racial bias.

As . The racial history of the United States often shows us that the structures and socialization process of white privilege and white supremacy are not only far from gone, but are alive and well. The Long History of Racial Injustice in US Courts.

By Shamako Noble, www and the potential executive kill list that goes with it is a huge issue. The history of the United States is filled with examples of legal discrimination against all minority groups, particularly in the period between Emancipation and the Civil Rights movement.

Jim Crow laws were racial segregation laws that were enacted between the s and s primarily at . Introduction The issue of racial disparity in the criminal justice system has been a longstanding debate in this county.

According to Tonry (as cited in Cole & Gertz, ) African Americans make up to 50% of the prison population but are only 12 % of the total United States population.

Is the Criminal-Justice System Racist? | City Journal