Justinian depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San VitaleRavenna. Justinian I, who assumed the throne inoversaw a period of Byzantine expansion into former Roman territories.
Siege of Constantinople Battle between Heraclius and the Persians. Fresco by Piero della Francescac. However, the Persian threat was not yet diminished.
Khosrau began conscripting able-bodied men into a new army, raising a crack force of approximately 50, men. Heraclius, it seems, was not only being outmaneuvered, but being outmaneuvered by several larger armies.
However, Heraclius attempted to match the Persians by duplicating their strategy and dividing his forces into three separate contingents. Meanwhile, the third, which would be personally commanded by the Emperor, would march through Armenia and the Caucasus and into Persia, which he believed would have been stripped of most of the able-bodied men due to Khosrau's conscription.
This would allow his forces to easily advance into the heartland of Persia. Theodore's contingent fared well against Shahin in Mesopotamia, inflicting a crushing defeat on the Persians. Indeed, the efforts of the Patriarch Sergius in whipping up the population into a religious and patriotic frenzy cannot be overlooked.
When the Byzantine fleet annihilated a Persian and an Avar fleet in two separate ambushes, the besiegers appeared to have withdrawn in panic.
And when word of Theodore's victory in Mesopotamia came, it was concluded by the besiegers that Byzantium was now under the protection of the Romans' Christian God.
Impressed by the offer though no doubt Epiphania was notthe Khan fielded some 40, troops on the Byzantine side.
It would be to Epiphania's great relief that the Khan died just two years later, in Nonetheless, Byzantium made good use of the boost in troops when Heraclius marched into Mesopotamia the following year.
His objective was clear: His army marched cautiously into this hostile terrain. Meanwhile, Rhahzadhthe new Persian commander, was also not keen to face Heraclius until his army was ready for a pitched battle. After spending a greater part of in Mesopotamia, Heraclius finally encountered the Persian army close to the ruins of the city of Ninevah.
For eleven hours, the Byzantines and the Persians fought each other continuously. In the thick of the fighting Razates issued a challenge to Heraclius, who accepted.
In a fit of rage, Heraclius ordered that everything be burnt to the ground. Heraclius waited a week or two before marching his army back. Khosrau's son Siroes took power as Kavadh II and had his father shot to death with arrows.
As an added bonus, all captives and Christian relics that had been captured by the Persians were returned. Leading a procession which included four elephants, the True Cross was placed high atop the altar of the Hagia Sophia.
By this time, it was generally expected by the Byzantine populace that the Emperor would lead Byzantium into a new age of glory.
However, all of Heraclius' achievements would come to naught, when, inthe Byzantine-Arab Wars began. On 8 Junethe Islamic Prophet Muhammad died of a fever. Inthe armies of Islam marched out of Arabia, their goal to spread the word of the prophet, with force if needed.
The Byzantines advanced in May However, a sandstorm blew on 20 August against the Byzantines and when the Arabs charged against them they were utterly annihilated: By Allah's help some 70, of them were put to death and their remnants took to flight Heraclius stopped by Jerusalem to recover the True Cross whilst it was under siege.
Once the commander of his father's fleet, he developed a phobia of the sea, and refused to cross the Bosporus to the capital. Only when several boats were tied along the length of the strait with shrubs placed along to hide the water did he ride across, "as if by land" as a contemporary put it.
Because of the Byzantine—Sasanian War of — both Byzantines and Persians exhausted themselves and made them vulnerable for the expansion of the Caliphate.
The Arab invasions and loss of territory was not all that bore heavily upon the Emperor's mind. The religious controversies once again emerged when the Patriarch of Constantinople Sergius proposed monothelitism as a compromise to the Chalcedonian Christians and the Monophysites.
Heraclius agreed to the proposal. However, it received much criticism from both sides of the theological debate of Christ's true nature.The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with origins that can be traced to A.D., when the Roman emperor Constantine I .
Byzantium: The Lost Empire Heir to Greece and Rome, the Byzantine Empire was also the first Christian empire. Now, after a year of filming on three continents, TLC unlocks this ancient civilization, spanning 11 centuries and three continents.
REPORT. Video Content. The video content is inappropriate.4/5(51). Byzantine Empire. Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium rose to existence by the foundation of the city Constantinople in AD, and the final division to Eastern and Western Roman Empire . Filled with unforgettable stories of emperors, generals, and religious patriarchs, as well as fascinating glimpses into the life of the ordinary citizen, Lost to the West reveals how much we owe to the Byzantine Empire that was the equal of any in its achievements, appetites, and enduring legacy.
For more than a millennium, Byzantium reigned as the glittering seat of Christian civilization. The Byzantine Empire was both similar and different from the previous Roman Empire, and its greatest ruler, Justinian, made it his main ambition to regain the lost territory, and power of Rome.
The empire of Byzantium was the only classical empire to survive the erratically difficult period of time some years after the turn of the millennium/5(7). ROME AND ROMANIA, 27 BC AD. Emperors of the Roman and the so-called Byzantine Empires; Princes, Kings, and Tsars of Numidia, Judaea, Bulgaria, Serbia, Wallachia, & Moldavia;.